Prevalence and factors associated with dry eye syndrome in adult patients presenting at Mulago Hospital
Wabwile, Machimoto Kennedy
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Introduction: Dry eye syndrome is a disease of tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of ocular discomfort and visual disturbance with potential to damage to the ocular surface. There is limited published information on the prevalence DES in African communities, in particular the prevalence in Uganda is unknown. In order to understand the burden of DES among eye patients attending Mulago Hospital Eye Clinic, we carried out a baseline study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with DES in a sample of patients attending the Old Mulago eye clinic. General objective: To determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome and its associated factors in adult patients presenting at the Old Mulago Eye Clinic, Mulago Hospital. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 306 patients was conducted from June to July 2014 at Old Mulago Hospital Eye Clinic. Patients were recruited systematically, whereby every 5th patient was recruited. Socio-demographic data, medical, ocular and drug history were taken. A standardised questionnaire was used to assess for DES symptoms. A detailed external eye examination was done on all the patients. All patients were assessed for tear break up time, tear film stability, ocular surface staining and tear secretion. Data was analysed by multivariate analysis with logistic regression for categorical dependent variables using Stata Version 10. Results and conclusions: Dry eye syndrome was found to be very common in our study population with a prevalence of 29.74%. Tear film instability, tear film hyposecretion were significantly increased in those who had DES according to the DES questionnaire. Tear film instability was present in 15.35% and tear film hyposecretion was present in 3.72% of those who did not have DES according to the DES questionnaire. Dry eye syndrome was found to be significantly associated with outdoor occupation, dry mouth, meibomian gland dysfunction, pterygium and visual impairment.