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|Title: ||Population pharmacokinetics of chloroquine and sulfadoxine and treatment response in children with malaria: suggestions for an improved dose regimen|
|Authors: ||Obua, Celestino|
Gustafsson, Lars L.
Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper W.
Increased dose proposal
|Issue Date: ||2007 |
|Citation: ||Obua, C., Hellgren, U., Ntale, M., Gustafsson, L.L., Ogwal-Okeng, J.W., Gordi, T., Jerling, M. (2007). Population pharmacokinetics of chloroquine and sulfadoxine and treatment response in children with malaria: suggestions for an improved dose regimen. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65(4)|
To describe the pharmacokinetics of chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine
(SDx), and to identify predictors of treatment response in children with
malaria given the CQ + SDx and pyrimethamine (PYR) combination.
Eighty-six Ugandan children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria,
6months to 5 years old, were randomly treated with prepacked fixed-dose CQ + SDx/PYR. The youngest children (<24 months) received half strength and the older (>24 months) full strength treatment. The
reported day 14 failure rates were 48% and 18%, respectively. Capillary blood (100 ml) applied on to filter paper was collected on eight occasions during 28 days of follow up. Concentrations of CQ and SDx were determined. A population approach was used for the pharmacokinetic analysis.
A two-compartment model adequately described the data for both CQ and SDx. For CQ, the typical apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (VC/F) values were estimated to be 2.84 l h-1 and 230 l. The typical CL/F for SDx was 0.023 l h-1, while the factor relating its VC/F to normalized body weight was 1.6 l kg-1. Post hoc parameter estimates
for both drugs showed lower maximum concentrations (Cmax) and concentration-time curve areas (AUC(0,336 h)) in younger children. The AUC(0,336 h) for SDx and CQ were independently significant factors for
prediction of cure. Simulations suggest that giving the higher dose to the youngest children would result in higher CQ and SDx
concentrations and improved outcome.
The study results suggest that full-strength combination to all children would improve the cure rate.|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Articles (Health-Sciences)|
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