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|Title: ||Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Africa started on combination antiretroviral therapy: an observational analysis of the DART cohort|
|Authors: ||Walker, A.S.|
Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis after ART initiation
CD4 cell count
|Issue Date: ||29-Mar-2010 |
|Citation: ||Walker, A.S., Ssali, F., Ford, D., Gilks, C.F., Reid, A., Katabira, E.T., Grosskurth, H., Mugyenyi, P., Hakim,J., Darbyshire, J.H., Gibb, D.M., Babiker, A.G. (2010). Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Africa started on combination antiretroviral therapy: an observational analysis of the DART cohort. The Lancet|
|Abstract: ||Background: Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis can reduce mortality from untreated HIV infection in Africa; whether benefits occur alongside combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. We estimated the effect of prophylaxis after ART initiation in adults.
Methods: Participants in our observational analysis were from the DART randomised trial of management strategies in HIV-infected, symptomatic, previously untreated African adults starting triple-drug ART with CD4 counts lower than 200 cells per μL. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was not routinely used or randomly allocated, but was variably prescribed by clinicians. We estimated effects on clinical outcomes, CD4 cell count, and body-mass index (BMI) using marginal structural models to adjust for time-dependent confounding by indication. DART was registered, number ISRCTN13968779.
Findings: 3179 participants contributed 14 214 years of follow-up (8128 [57%] person-years on co-trimoxazole). Time-dependent predictors of co-trimoxazole use were current CD4 cell count, haemoglobin concentration, BMI, and previous WHO stage 3 or 4 events on ART. Present prophylaxis significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.50–0.85; p=0.001). Mortality risk reduction on ART was substantial to 12 weeks (0.41, 0.27–0.65), sustained from 12–72 weeks (0.56, 0.37–0.86), but not evident subsequently (0.96, 0.63–1.45; heterogeneity p=0.02). Variation in mortality reduction was not accounted for by time on co-trimoxazole or current CD4 cell count. Prophylaxis reduced frequency of malaria (0.74, 0.63–0.88; p=0.0005), an effect that was maintained with time, but we observed no effect on new WHO stage 4 events (0.86, 0.69–1.07; p=0.17), CD4 cell count (difference vs non-users, –3 cells per μL [–12 to 6]; p=0.50), or BMI (difference vs non-users, –0.04 kg/m2 [–0.20 to 0.13); p=0.68].
Interpretation: Our results reinforce WHO guidelines and provide strong motivation for provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for at least 72 weeks for all adults starting combination ART in Africa.|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Articles (Health-Sciences)|
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